This document is an annotated index of popular articles and important information for improving and adding functionalities to Pop!_OS.
During the installation process, you will create your first system user. Once installation is complete, you will be left with this user, as well as the superuser account, better known as "root". The unprivileged user account created during installation is the account you will log in with, and will be used for most tasks. The root account should be used only when absolutely necessary for system administration. Leaving the root account logged in is insecure.
Users and groups are a mechanism for access control; administrators may fine-tune group membership and ownership to grant or deny users and services access to system resources. Read the Users and groups article for details and potential security risks.
Both the su and sudo commands allow you to run commands as another user. By default su drops you to a login shell as the root user, and sudo by default temporarily grants you root privileges for a single command. See their respective articles for differences.
Pop!_OS uses systemd as the init process, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Pop!_OS installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the systemctl command. Read systemd#Basic systemctl usage for more information.
apt is the Pop!_OS package manager: it is strongly recommended that all users become familiar with it before reading any other articles.
See apt/Tips and tricks for suggestions on how to improve your interaction with apt and package management in general.
See the Official repositories article for details about the repositories enabled by default on a clean Pop!_OS installation.
Personal Package Archives (PPAs) are a type of user-managed apt repository which allows you to upload source packages to be built and published on Launchpad. While PPAs are commonly used to install and manage software not included in the official repositories, it is worth noting that they are user managed, so should be used with care. Read the Launchpad Help article] for further information.
Hardware should be auto-detected by udev during the boot process by default. A potential improvement in boot time can be achieved by disabling module auto-loading and specifying required modules manually, as described in Kernel modules. Additionally, Xorg should be able to auto-detect required drivers using
udev, but users have the option to configure the X server manually too.
Once it concludes, the screen is cleared and the login prompt appears, leaving users unable to gather feedback from the boot process. Disable clearing of boot messages to overcome this limitation.
Num Lock is a toggle key found in most keyboards. For activating Num Lock's number key-assignment during startup, see Activating Numlock on Bootup.
This section provides orientation for users wishing to run graphical applications on their system. See Category:Graphical user interfaces for additional resources.
Xorg is the public, open-source implementation of the X Window System (commonly X11, or X). It is required for running applications with graphical user interfaces (GUIs), and the majority of users will want to install it.
Wayland is a newer, alternative display server protocol and the Weston reference implementation is available.
Although Pop!_OS comes bundled with the GNOME desktop environment, there are many other options available. Popular environments such as KDE, LXDE and Xfce bundle a wide range of X clients, such as a window manager, panel, file manager, terminal emulator, text editor, icons and other utilities. See Category:Desktop environments for additional resources.
A full-fledged desktop environment provides a complete and consistent graphical user interface, but tends to consume a considerable amount of system resources. Users seeking to maximize performance or otherwise simplify their environment may opt to install a window manager alone and hand-pick desired extras. Most desktop environments allow use of an alternative window manager as well. Dynamic, stacking, and tiling window managers differ in their handling of window placement.
This section may be of use to laptop owners or users otherwise seeking power management controls. For more, please see Category:Power management.
See Power management for more general overview.
Users can configure how the system reacts to ACPI events such as pressing the power button or closing a laptop's lid. For the new (recommended) method using systemd, see Power management with systemd.
Modern processors can decrease their frequency and voltage to reduce heat and power consumption. Less heat leads to more quiet system and prolongs the life of hardware. See CPU frequency scaling for details.
For articles related to portable computing along with model-specific installation guides, please see Category:Laptops. For a general overview of laptop-related articles and recommendations, see Laptop.
See main article: Suspend and hibernate.
Category:Multimedia includes additional resources.
Sound is provided by kernel sound drivers:
For access to certain web content, browser plugins such as Adobe Acrobat Reader and Java can be installed.
Codecs are utilized by multimedia applications to encode or decode audio or video streams. In order to play encoded streams, users must ensure an appropriate codec is installed.
For better security while browsing web, paying online, connecting to SSH services and similar tasks consider using DNSSEC-enabled client software which can validate signed DNS records, and DNSCrypt to encrypt DNS traffic.
A firewall can provide an extra layer of protection on top of the Linux networking stack. It is highly recommended to set up some form of firewall. See Category:Firewalls for available guides.
See also Category:Network sharing.
This section contains popular input device configuration tips. For more, please see Category:Input devices.
Non-English or otherwise non-standard keyboards may not function as expected by default. The necessary steps to configure the keymap are different for virtual console and Xorg, they are described in Keyboard configuration in console and Keyboard configuration in Xorg respectively.
Owners of advanced or unusual mice may find that not all mouse buttons are recognized by default, or may wish to assign different actions for extra buttons. Instructions can be found in Mouse buttons.
Many laptops use Synaptics or ALPS "touchpad" pointing devices. For these, and several other touchpad models, you can use either the Synaptics input driver or libinput; see Touchpad Synaptics and libinput for installation and configuration details.
See the TrackPoint article to configure your TrackPoint device.
This section aims to summarize tweaks, tools and available options useful to improve system and application performance.
Benchmarking is the act of measuring performance and comparing the results to another system's results or a widely accepted standard through a unified procedure.
The Improving performance article gathers information and is a basic rundown about gaining performance in Pop!_OS.
The Solid State Drives article covers many aspects of solid state drives, including configuring them to maximize their lifetimes.
Most distributions have a locate command available to be able to quickly search for files. To get this functionality in Pop!_OS,is the recommended install. After the install you should run updatedb to index the filesystems.
This section contains frequently-sought "eye candy" tweaks for an aesthetically pleasing Pop!_OS experience. For more, please see Category:Eye candy.
You may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts. There are several general-purpose font families providing large Unicode coverage and even metric compatibility with fonts from other operating systems.
If spending a significant amount of time working from the virtual console (i.e. outside an X server), users may wish to change the console font to improve readability; see Linux_console#Fonts.
A big part of the applications with a graphical interface for Linux systems are based on the GTK+ or the Qt toolkits. See those articles and Uniform look for Qt and GTK applications for ideas to improve the appearance of your installed programs and adapt it to your liking.
This section applies to small modifications that improve console programs' practicality. For more, please see Category:Command shells.
It is recommended to properly set up extended tab completion right away, as instructed in the article of your chosen shell.
Aliasing a command, or a group thereof, is a way of saving time when using the console. This is specially helpful for repetitive tasks that do not need significant alteration to their parameters between executions. Common time-saving aliases can be found in Bash#Aliases, which are easily portable to zsh as well.
This section is covered in Color output in console.
Compressed files, or archives, are frequently encountered on a GNU/Linux system. Tar is one of the most commonly used archiving tools, and users should be familiar with its syntax. See Archiving and compression.
Emacs is known for featuring options beyond the duties of regular text editing, one of these being a full shell replacement. Consult Emacs#Colored output issues for a fix regarding garbled characters that may result from enabling colored output.
Using a mouse with the console for copy-paste operations can be preferred over GNU Screen's traditional copy mode. Refer to General purpose mouse for comprehensive directions. Note that you can already do this in terminal emulators with the clipboard.
To be able to save and view text which has scrolled off the screen, refer to General troubleshooting#Scrollback.
Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or GNU Screen, programs may be run under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session.